Wednesday, May 11, 2016

Sailor of the Imperial Navy

Sailor of the Imperial Navy, serving at the Ottoman admiralty, by Louis Dupré[1].

[1] Louis Dupré (Versailles 9 January 1789 – 12 October 1837 Paris) was a French painter, especially noted for his travels in Greece and the Ottoman Empire and his numerous paintings with Orientalist and Philhellene themes. 

He often traveled and changed his work location, including Paris, Kassel (1811–1814), Naples (1814–1816), Rome (1816–1819, 1824–1831), Naples (1819–1820), Istanbul (ca. 1820), Greece (ca. 1820), Paris (1820–1837), and Vienna (1820–1824). 

His visit to Greece was on the very eve of the Greek War of Independence.

Monday, June 29, 2015

300 AKÇELİK OĞLANLAR

"Evet, Osmanlı döneminde eşcinsellik daha yerleşik, daha kabullenilir bir kimliktir. 'Mahbup', Osmanlı'da eşcinsellere verilen genel addı. Aktif ve pasif eşcinsellik ayrımı da yapılmıştı. 

Mahbuplar, yani eşcinsellerin pasif olanına 'Oğlan', aktif olanına da 'oğlancı' deniyordu. Ama daha teknik tanımla şöyle yapılmıştı: Heteroseksüel ilişki kuranlara 'Zenpare', eşcinsel ilişki kuranlara ise 'Kulanpare' deniyordu. Osmanlı eşcinsellerinin kendi kalçaları için kullandıkları tabir de pek yaratıcıydı: Kase-i billur!

Eşcinsellerin kapalı sayılan Osmanlı toplumunda arz-ı endam ettiği en önemli yer elbette hamamlardı. Hamamlarda 'döşek yoldaşlığı' tarifesi olan bir kalemdi. 'Oğlan'ların servis edildiği bu tarifede fiyat 300 akçeden başlıyordu. (Hamamlardaki eşcinsel serüveni anlatan en önemli kaynak Dellakname-i Dilkuşa'dır (Gönül Açan Tellaklar). Derviş İsmail tarafından kaleme alınan risalede 17. yüzyılın sonlarında İstanbul'da 408 hamamda 2.300 tellağın çalıştığını bunların büyük bir kısmının da eşcinsel olduğu anlatılıyor.) 

Hamamları özel olarak inceleyen tarihçi Ergun Hiçyılmaz, bakın nasıl anlatıyor; '... Tophane, Unkapanı, Tahtakale, Yemiş İskelesi, Bahçekapı; her türlü rezilliğe açık birer yeniçeri yuvasıydı. Buralarda bırakın ırz ehli kadınları, pazılı delikanlılar bile dolaşamazdı. Bu semtlerde hamamlara girmek kolay, çıkmak zordu. 'Hamama giren terler' sözü o dönemin dellaklarının sözüdür. Ayrıca 'baltayı taşa vurmak' deyimi de buradan çıkmıştır. Balta; yeniçeri ortalarına ait 'nişan' denilen bir alameti farikadır. Bu uzunca bir sırmayla işli çevre veya peşkirin bir kadına ya da oğlana verilmesi ve armağanı oğlana veren kişinin bununla dolaşması sırasında 'balta' bellidir. Balta veren yeniçerinin elinden bunu kapmak baltayı taşa vurmaktır.'

Tuesday, February 17, 2015

Article | Bir Alt-Kültür Grubu: Külhanbeyleri

XVIII. Yüzyilda Osmanlida Bir Zümrenin Alt-Kültür Grubuna Dönüşmesi: Külhanbeyleri
Mehmet DEMİRTAŞ 
Link

Abstract: After admission of İstanbul to Turkish domination, people from each class have shown interest and have increased the population of the city. That situation has caused chaos and problems have increased. In the capital city İstanbul one of the most important problem occured because of boilermen[1]. Without any work, living at someone else’s expense, disturbing society with rude behaviours, boilermen had roughly life. Having their own life style, talking style, behaviours, boilermen were against class in the society. In order to redress the boilermen, the government had to struggle with them permanently and has taken some some precautions. In spite of all struggle and precautions, boilermen have persisted one of the biggest problem fort he administrators of the state in each periode of history.

[1] Külhan. Boiler house of Turkish hamam where these ruffians took refuge for the evening to find a warm place to crash.

Friday, February 13, 2015

Child Sexual Abuse

Article: Child Sexual Abuse: Historical Cases In The Byzantine Empire (324–1453 A.D.) John Lascaratos and Effie Poulakou-Rebelakou 

Link


The aim of this article is the presentation and brief analysis of some historical cases, unknown in the broader medical bibliography, of child sexual abuse in Byzantine Society (324–1453 A.D.).

The original texts of the Byzantine historians, chroniclers and ecclesiastical authors, written in the Greek language, were studied in order to locate instances of child sexual abuse.

Although the punishment provided by the laws and the church for cases of child sexual abuse were very strict, a number of instances of rapes under cover of premature marriages, even in the imperial families, are revealed in these texts. Furthermore, cases of child prostitution, pederasty, and incest are included in the historical texts and some contemporary authors confirmed the presence of many such cases in all classes of Byzantine society.

The research of original Byzantine literature disclosed many instances of child sexual abuse in all social classes even in the mediaeval Byzantine society which was characterized by strict legal and religious prohibitions.

Monday, December 22, 2014

Kalyoncu Kulluğu

Asıl adı Kalyoncu Kulluğu olan bir Tarlabaşı caddesidir. hatta Tarlabaşı Caddesi'yle kesişen köşesinde de Beyoğlu merkez karakolu bulunur, ama karakolun önünde kapkaç almış yürümüştür.

Nikonun Hasir adli meyhanesi de burada idi.

Tarlabaşı bulvarının- istimlakten evvel- en darlaştığı yerde sağa açılan geniş, önce dümdüz ve gittikçe dikleşen yokuşlu caddesinin adıdır. köşesindeki karakolun iki katlı ahşap bir binadan, betonarmeye terfii edişi istimlakden de eskidir. karakolun önünden geçerken, kapının önünde oturan tonton polis amcaya selam verirdik, o da gülümserdi bize. polisten korkmayı sonradan öğrendik. yokusun iki yakasina yan yana dizili küçük dükkanlarda envai çeşit esnaf, cumbalı evlerinde çeşit biçim insan yaşardı. "Tiyatoracı"ların -pera'ya yakınlığından olsa gerek- rağbet ettiği nezih bir mesken idi. Sokak aralarında çiroz dalları olurdu çamaşır ipleri yerine. paskalya'da sakızlı çörek kokuları taşardı dantel perdeli mutfak camlarından. Iftar zamanlarında kilise de çanlarını öttürürdü, ezanla birlikte. hemen girişte, hani sağdaki o küçük dükkanda rum bakkal lambo, az ilerde hikmet karagöz'ün oturduğu sokağın başında kasap mösyö koço, solda tabutçu dikran, sokaktan aklıma yazılanlar. Yokuşun sonu "yenişehir" deniler yere bağlanırdı. Orada da "alibelendi çadırı" yani cambazhane vardı. önce top sahası oldu, bugun cambazhanenin yerinde ne var, bilmiyorum. şimdilerde matbaa olan yerin karşısındaki kilise hala duruyor.. Lambo'nun dükkanı da açık, çırağı hüseyin'e devredip, yunanistan'a gitti dedilerdi. Mösyö koço ölmüş müdür? 6-7 eylül günü o yokuştan aşağıya huzurlu insanların yerine, kan, zeytinyağı, ipekli kumaşlar ve dinmez bir acı aktı derler. Sakinleri yavaş yavaş yokuşu terk'edince bosalan mekanlara meyhane, müzikhol, "kötü ev" ve kapkaç yerleşti dediler.

"mösyöö lambooo, miso kilo soğanii! "

Kaynak Eksi Sozluk

Tuesday, December 16, 2014

Identity Papers for the Ladies of the “House of Tolerance”

Identity Papers for the Ladies of the “House of Tolerance”, Sighișoara, 1920s




SOURCE

One of the most fascinating files I have come across was one from the Sighișoara (Schäßburg / Segesvar ) police department containing detailed identity papers for the ladies - that is, prostitutes - residing at the Casa de Toleranță (House of Tolerance) in the 1920s. These forms were four pages in length and contained information regarding the woman’s birthplace, family background, religion, languages spoken, ethnicity, education level, trade school training, other jobs held, and in the last slot, the details of how the woman lost her virginity (including the name of the man and place) and whether she had given birth or had an abortion. Most of the time photographs also accompanied these files.

The women were generally out-of-towners, but other than this feature and their common occupation, they were as diverse a crowd as could be in Transylvania - Hungarians, Romanians, Jews, Germans, and even one Armenian were all represented. For anyone researching the oldest trade in the world in Transylvania, this little, unobtrusive file is a gold mine.




Friday, September 26, 2014

Girard and Scapegoating

What ideas were behind Costak's motives. Why Costak must be filmed without a dialogue. Only actions and moments without a word.

Origin of language

According to Girard, the origin of language is also related to scapegoating. After the first victim, after the murder of the first scapegoat, there were the first prohibitions and rituals, but these came into being before representation and language, hence before culture. And that means that "people" (perhaps not human beings) "will not start fighting again". Girard says:
If mimetic disruption comes back, our instinct will tell us to do again what the sacred has done to save us, which is to kill the scapegoat. Therefore it would be the force of substitution of immolating another victim instead of the first. But the relationship of this process with representation is not one that can be defined in a clear-cut way. This process would be one that moves towards representation of the sacred, towards definition of the ritual as ritual and prohibition as prohibition. But this process would already begin prior the representation, you see, because it is directly produced by the experience of the misunderstood scapegoat.
According to Girard, the substitution of an immolated victim for the first, is "the very first symbolic sign created by the hominids".

Girard also says this is the first time that one thing represents another thing, standing in the place of this (absent) one. This substitution is the beginning of representation and language, but also the beginning of sacrifice and ritual. The genesis of language and ritual is very slow and we must imagine that there are also kinds of rituals among the animals: "It is the originary scapegoating which prolongs itself in a process which can be infinitely long in moving from, how should I say, from instinctive ritualization, instinctive prohibition, instinctive separation of the antagonists, which you already find to a certain extent in animals, towards representation."

Unlike Eric Gans, Girard does not think that there is an original scene during which there is "a sudden shift from non-representation to representation", or a sudden shift from animality to humanity. According to the French sociologist Camille Tarot, it is hard to understand how the process of representation (symbolicity, language...) actually occurs and he has called this a black box in Girard's theory.

Girard also says:
One great characteristic of man is what they [the authors of the modern theory of evolution] call neoteny, the fact that the human infant is born premature, with an open skull, no hair and a total inability to fend for himself. To keep it alive, therefore, there must be some form of cultural protection, because in the world of mammals, such infants would not survive, they would be destroyed. Therefore there is a reason to believe that in the later stages of human evolution, culture and nature are in constant interaction. The first stages of this interaction must occur prior to language, but they must include forms of sacrifice and prohibition that create a space of non-violence around the mother and the children which make it possible to reach still higher stages of human development. You can postulate as many such stages as are needed. Thus, you can have a transition between ethology and anthropology which removes, I think, all philosophical postulates. The discontinuities would never be of such a nature as to demand some kind of sudden intellectual illumination.